書摘 - 第六種語言:網路時代的新傳播語彙

第六種語言:網路時代的新傳播語彙

The Sixth Language: learning a living in the internet age
Robert K. Logan. 2000.

第二章 殷尼斯 - 麥克魯漢的傳播革命:麥克魯漢的瘋狂中所隱含的方法

因果關係的逆轉

對一種科技效果的理解方式之一,便是思考假如這種科技突然消失,所產生的變化。對殷尼斯和麥克魯漢而言,一對一的因果關係,已經被「總體理論」(total-field-theory)所取代。這個方法指的是,一種且同樣的因素,可產生各種不同可預測和特殊的效果(McLuhan 1972, ix)。殷尼斯和麥克魯漢放棄了「一項因素對一項結果的配對方法,而將重心放在理解新媒體結構所釋放的過程」(McLuhan 1972, x)。線性因果關係因為受到經驗主義宗師休謨(David Hume, 1711-1776)的懷疑論的質疑,以及量子力學對因果原則(Principle of causality)所產生的不信任,已經被因果之間相互作用的觀念所取代。「與其問先有雞或先有蛋,不如將一隻雞看作是一個蛋為了產生更多的蛋的過程」(McLuhan 1964, 12)。

媒體法則

麥克魯漢為了研究媒體和科技的效應,發展了一套稱為媒體法則(Laws of the Media, LOM)的規則,說明了科技影響所具有的反直覺特性:

  1. 任何一種媒體或科技,都會增強人類的某些功能。(ENHANCE)
  2. 為了達到這種效果,它都會讓先前的科技和媒體過時,這些科技和媒體過去是被用於滿足對這些功能的需求。(OBSOLESCE)
  3. 為了發揮它的功能,新科技或媒體從過去找回來某些舊有形式。(RETRIEVE)
  4. 當新科技或媒體發展到某種程度,它會反轉變成一種互補的形式。(REVERSE)

使用者即內容

在我們所研究的媒體之中,沒有一個能像網際網路般能確切代表著「使用者即內容」的概念。電話或許是個例外,因為每個會話的內容,實際上就是使用者的內容。這與電子郵件完全相同,因為電子郵件的使用者創造了他們的內容。全球資訊網和電話與電子郵件相同,具有雙向溝通的特色,以致一個設計良好的網站可刺激網友提供資訊。這些網站的成功,在於能吸引網友使用得自於網友的資訊,以架設一個符合他們需求的網站。網站透過網主和網友之間的互動來自行組織。

  • McLuhan, Marshall. 1964. Understanding Media. New York: McGraw Hill.
  • McLuhan, Marshall. 1972. Forward to Empire and Communications, by Harold Innis. Reprint. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.

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