德國海盜黨的流動式民主


techPresident 有篇關於德國海盜黨採用某種網路機制進行決策,模式類似介於直接民主與代議政治再加上審議式論辯...
仔細看過之後才知道,不只是單純的網路投票機制而已。簡記如下,希望以後派得上用場(我對德國/海盜不熟,若有錯漏請不吝更正):

主要內容來源:德國海盜黨的流動式民主的運作方式(How the German Pirate Party's "Liquid Democracy" Works

  • 德國海盜黨運用網路科技,處理其三年內快速成長的問題(2009年成立時只有800多黨員,2012年有將近三萬人)。
  • 2011 年,德國海盜黨針對柏林州議會選舉推出 15 位候選人,全上。其後幾次其他的州議會選舉,德國海盜黨也獲得7-8%的得票率,取得席次
  • 海盜這麼多,怎麼開會/決策?少數人才會去開會,多數的決策都是先在網路上經過許多人的討論。
  • 他們有些工具,例如以 EtherPad 為基礎的即時共筆編輯工具 PiratePad,也使用聊天室、wiki 和郵件論壇來協作。
  • 柏林的海盜黨則在實驗一項工具,Liquid Feedback。這是一個開源碼的軟體,核心概念是 liquid democracy(流動?透明?),一個用來顛覆傳統政治的技術。
  • Liquid Feedback 是關於競爭與決策。這平台上的 6,000 個成員都可以提出某項政策,如果此政策可以在某段期限內達到某個門檻,就會進入一個競爭性的修訂階段。每個成員都可以提出不同版本的政策,所有版本最後將透過投票來比拼。
  • 柏林海盜黨發言人 Ingo Bormuth 期望這是良性的競爭。透過競爭,可讓人專注在議題上。
  • 投票時,每人一票。但是,因為並非大家都能夠詳閱政策內容,所以系統允許成員可以委託他人代為投票。委託範圍可以是所有提案、某個主題的提案、或是某特定提案。而被委派投票的成員,還可以把這些票、包括自己的一票,再度委託給他人投票!
  • Liquid Feedback 這種以信任為基礎的模式,類似信譽系統(reputation system),只不過成員的參與所換到的不是點數,而是選票。理論上,這種投票鏈可能會把票集中到人緣好的菁英或獨裁者身上,但好在有個防錯機制,可以在任何時候取消委託投票,有野心的海盜也得認真才能成事。Bormuth 說,我們讓有戰鬥力的人可以成事,但也讓大家有權控制這些人。
  • 這就是 liquid democracy。可以在直接民主與代議政治之間擺盪,每個成員可以在任何時刻決定他們自己想要採行的方式。
  • 不過,海盜黨的柏林州議會議員 Simon Weiss 認為相較於其他比較常被採用的工具,Liquid Feedback 的重要性是否會被高估。且此平台也並非適合討論所有的議題。
  • 此外,其他工具是任何人都可使用,但 Liquid Feedback 則限制只有註冊成員(黨員?)可以使用。這也是對於 Liquid Feedback 的一個批判,似乎違反了草根精神。
  • Liquid Feedback 允許使用匿稱,系統僅需知道她是否為黨員,但不會去記錄哪個使用者帳號是對應到哪一個真人。目前有些關於導入實名制的討論,部分是因為議員想要知道他們是在跟誰對話,可以在議會裡進行討論時有明確的群眾意見轉述。這也是在直接民主與代議政治之間的游移。
  • Liquid Feedback 是民主的未來版本的原型。Simon Weiss 說他們正在進行實驗、嘗試,到目前為止尚稱可行。
  • 除了海盜黨在嘗試 liquid democracy 之外,也有其他採用 Adhocracy (一個類似 Liquid Feedback 的軟體)來進行政治創新的實驗案例。

備註:這是為了準備協助台灣綠黨建立輔助性網路平台而進行研究的參考資料。

Comments

補充幾點:
1. Liquid Feedback 由柏林的 Public Software Group e. V. 開發,不專屬於海盜黨使用,也不限於政治用途。目前也有公司企業客制化 Liquid Feedback 供公司內部事務討論用。
2. 開發者日前宣布不再支援海盜黨版本的 Liquid Feedback,因為海盜黨要求匿名投票的設計,但開發者認為在政黨用途上,應該所有決議都具名。開發者認為目前海盜黨版本已悖離 Liquid Democracy 的精神。
3. 自 2012 年 8 月起 Liquid Feedback 已有傳統中文界面,以及由傳統中文直接轉換的簡體中文界面。進入 demo,右上角可選擇界面語言 (http://dev.liquidfeedback.org/lf2/)。在中文化過程中,「流動回饋」是被原開發者接受的翻譯,但後來還是在界面中保留英文原名不加以翻譯。

謝謝 hsu 的翻譯,我們實際架了個 instance 讓大家試用,同時也看看使用起來感覺如何

目前的共筆在此: https://hackpad.com/Bee14qTnjgX

其中有些翻譯的想法也希望您可以撥空討論及指教。

我現在才注意到後續的討論。
有關翻譯的部份的建議會在下次修改,去年夏天翻得很快所以其實看起來很機械化。
其實數週前已經有新版本釋出,只是到目前還沒空去補齊新增的詞彙翻譯。
假使有想與開發群討論 liquidfeedback 跟裡面的數學/統計問題的話,可以考慮加入這個 mail list
http://dev.liquidfeedback.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/main

charlesc's picture

感謝 Chun-Ting,原來有中文介面,來用用看!

校園裡投票選各種幹事不是應該先試用 LiquidFeedback 嘛?很想知道現況咧。

polo ralph lauren

adidas uk

tods shoes

louis vuitton handbags

sac longchamp pliage

pandora charms

nike air max outlet

yeezy 350 boost

columbia outlet online

michael kors handbags

discount ray ban sunglasses

nike free 5.0

tory burch outlet

yeezy boost 350 v2

louis vuitton outlet

adidas yeezy

sac longchamp

rolex replica watches

marc jacobs handbags

ralph lauren outlet

michael kors outlet online

coach outlet

discount oakley sunglasses

michael kors outlet clearance

cheap nfl jerseys

louis vuitton outlet

nmd adidas

nike outlet store

michael kors outlet

ugg outlet

giuseppe zanotti sneakers

burberry outlet canada

nike outlet

birkenstock sandals

ralph lauren uk

nike shoes for men

versace shoes

michael kors outlet

golden state warriors jerseys

hollister clothing store

adidas uk

hermes handbags

longchamp uk

ray ban sunglasses

louboutin

louis vuitton outlet

kate spade

coach outlet store

polo ralph lauren outlet

coach factory outlet

ralph lauren uk

coach outlet store

cheap oakley sunglasses

adidas shoes

coach outlet store

adidas nmd

coach outlet

coach factory outlet

ugg outlet

jordan shoes

ray ban sunglasses discount

yeezy boost

true religion jeans

polo ralph lauren outlet

valentino shoes

fitflops

air jordan uk

longchamp handbags

yeezy boost

cheap nfl jerseys wholesale

cheap jordans free shipping

polo ralph lauren outlet online

toms shoes outlet

coach outlet

fake rolex

michael kors outlet

dansko outlet

christian louboutin shoes

pandora jewelry

kate spade outlet

oakley sunglasses

adidas nmd

michael kors handbags

borse gucci

kate spade handbags

michael kors outlet

christian louboutin

birkenstock shoes

hermes bags

fit flops

adidas yeezy

coach outlet

cheap mlb jerseys

ugg boots

mlb jerseys cheap

michael kors outlet

adidas yeezy boost

ralph lauren outlet online

cheap jerseys from china

cheap ray ban sunglasses

170727yueqin

adidas nmd r1
longchamp le pliage
adidas nmd
adidas ultra boost
real jordans
golden goose
adidas stan smith men
light up shoes
adidas outlet
nike air force 1 high
cartier bracelet
adidas outlet online
golden goose sneakers
atlanta falcons jersey
yeezy
tory burch shoes
kobe 9
christian louboutin shoes
true religion uk
nike air max
asics sneakers
kobe bryant shoes
nike air zoom
michael kors purses
fitflops clearance
ultra boost 3.0
curry 2
adidas yeezy
kyrie 3
pandora bracelet
nike mercurial
true religion outlet
nike air max 90
cheap jordans
van cleef arpels
adidas yeezy boost
michael kors outlet store
longchamp handbags
jordan retro
michael kors handbags
led shoes
michael jordan shoes
longchamp online shop
michael kors outlet online
adidas store
cheap jordan shoes
michael kors outlet
true religion
cartier love bracelet
air jordans
nike roshe run
jordan shoes
true religion jeans
michael kors handbags
curry 3
tory burch shoes
air jordan shoes
burberry scarf
lebron 13
links of london
adidas neo online shop
longchamp bags
adidas stan smith women
adidas online shop
golden goose
nike mercurial vapor
yeezy boost
adidas ultra boost
vibram fivefingers
michael kors factory outlet
light up shoes
irving shoes
nike zoom
adidas gazelle sale
air max
adidas ultra boost 3.0
jordan shoes
lebron james shoes
ferragamo sale
kobe basketball shoes
harden shoes
kobe shoes
michael kors outlet
hogan outlet
adidas gazelle
nike air zoom pegasus 32
michael kors outlet
lebron shoes
adidas tubular
james harden shoes
chrome hearts
nmd
patriots jersey
nike roshe run
adidas tubular UK
nike roshe run one
cheap jordans
jordan retro
lebron 13 low
cheap basketball shoes
nike huarache sale
fitflops sale
hermes belt
golden goose sneakers
longchamp handbags
michael kors outlet
michael kors handbags

nike air force 1 low
yeezy shoes
longchamp
kobe 11
ferragamo belt
patriots jerseys
huarache shoes
yeezy boost
retro jordans
basketball shoes
hermes belts for men
air jordan
louboutin shoes
yeezy shoes
yeezy boost 350
michael kors handbags sale
stephen curry shoes
michael kors outlet
adidas ultra boost
nmd r1
gucci belt
longchamp
nike air force 1
cheap jordans
cheap jordans
yeezy
air jordan shoes
dior sunglasses
yeezy shoes
true religion jeans
michael kors factory outlet
fitflops sale clearance
kobe sneakers
adidas ultra boost 3.0
van cleef necklace
nike air force 1
yeezy boost
hogan outlet online
nike dunks
retro jordans
timberland shoes
pandora charms
michael kors outlet store
kobe 11
longchamp bags
air force ones
nike polo
adidas superstar UK
huarache shoes
adidas outlet
longchamp
adidas tubular x
kobe shoes
gucci belts for men
adidas stan smith
prada eyeglasses
lebron 13 shoes
hermes belt
adidas superstar
chrome hearts
nike lebron 14
nike air max
nike air zoom structure 19
golden goose outlet
michael kors outlet
new england patriots jerseys
pandora jewelry
yeezy boost 350 v2
nike air max95
lacoste online shop
adidas nmd
chrome hearts online
nike roshe one
links of london sale
jordan shoes
yeezy boost 350 v2
curry 4
under armour curry 3
adidas nmd
nike air force
pandora bracelet
longchamp outlet
adidas stan smith uk
nike air max 2017
nike huarache
nike kyrie 3
kobe 9
air max 90
led light up shoes
basketball shoes
nike huarache
adidas superstar
yeezy boost 350
kobe bryant shoes
air max 95
tom ford glasses
longchamp handbags
yeezy sneakers
nike zoom
reebok outlet
air jordan
yeezy boost 350 v2
pandora jewelry
curry 3
adidas nmd
nike air force
gucci belts
http://www.nikedunks.us.org
tom ford sunglasses
air max 2018
kyrie irving shoes
cheap jordans
timberland outlet
adidas nmd
curry shoes
nike air max 2016
http://www.uggoutlet.uk
michael jordan shoes
adidas stan smith
chrome hearts outlet
links of london
kobe basketball shoes
lebron 14
michael kors outlet online
nike roshe run
yeezys
pandora charms
yeezy boost
michael kors outlet handbags
nike air max 2018
longchamp bags
adidas nmd r1
adidas yeezy
falcons jersey
asics running shoes
adidas neo
adidas tubular
adidas yeezy boost
roshe run
adidas shoes
lacoste outlet
adidas yeezy boost
prada sunglasses
michael kors handbags
ultra boost
fitflops
jordans for cheap
nike huarache
jordan retro
yeezy boost 350
lacoste polo

tommy hilfiger canada


polo ralph lauren


ugg slippers


fitflops


michael kors outlet clearance


north face jackets


pandora charms


nfl jerseys


new balance outlet


cheap nfl jerseys


polo ralph lauren uk


ugg outlet


ugg boots


cheap jordan shoes


cheap uggs


christian louboutin shoes


longchamp outlet


longchamp outlet


burberry outlet


ray ban sunglasses


coach outlet


louis vuitton


polo ralph lauren outlet


coach outlet


oakley sunglasses


mont blanc pens


prada outlet


uggs uk


ray ban canada


birkenstock sandals


mlb jerseys


ralph lauren polo


true religion jeans


the north face outlet


coach factory outlet


true religion


coach outlet


true religion jeans


coach wallets


christian louboutin


sac longchamp


ugg outlet


polo ralph lauren outlet


cheap ugg boots


nike air force 1


hermes outlet


coach factory outlet


coach factory outlet


ralph lauren outlet


ugg boots


adidas wings


ugg slippers


dolce and gabbana sunglasses


michael kors outlet 70% off


ugg outlet


uggs classic boots


adidas yeezy


true religion sale


ralph lauren outlet


burberry scarf


ugg boots


adidas yeezy


coach factory outlet


ugg boots clearance


michael kors outlet clearance


ugg boots


moncler outlet


tory burch outlet


ugg boots


oakley sunglasses


hermes belt outlet


adidas nmd


ralph lauren uk


north face jackets


ugg outlet online


north face outlet 70% off


ugg outlet


salvatore ferragamo


polo ralph lauren


ugg boots


pandora rings


ugg sale


canada goose clearance


coach factory outlet


superdry uk


ugg outlet


longchamp outlet store


michael kors uk


polo ralph lauren


nike outlet


oakley sunglasses


true religion


jordan shoes


nhl jerseys


christian louboutin shoes


uggs slippers


north face uk


fitflops sale clearance


201710.12wengdongdong

adidas nmd r1


adidas nmd


adidas outlet online


adidas outlet store


adidas outlet


adidas outlet online


adidas outlet store


adidas outlet


adidas shoes for men


adidas shoes for women


adidas shoes


adidas superstar shoes


adidas superstar


adidas yeezy boost


adidas yeezy shoes


adidas yeezy


adidas yeezy boost


adidas yeezy shoes


adidas yeezy


adidas yeezy shoes


yeezy shoes


air jordan shoes


cheap jordans


jordan shoes


air jordan 4 retro


air jordan 4


nike air jordan 4


air jordan retro


jordan retro shoes


jordan retro


air max 90


asics outlet


asics running shoes


asics shoes


canada goose jackets


canada goose outlet


canada goose


canada goose jackets canada


canada goose jackets


canada goose jackets canada


canada goose jackets


canada goose jackets


canada goose jackets


canada goose outlet


canada goose jackets sale


canada goose jackets


canada goose outlet store


canada goose outlet


canada goose jackets


canada goose outlet


canada goose


canada goose jackets sale


canada goose jackets


canada goose jackets


canada goose jackets


canada goose outlet


canada goose


canada goose jackets


canada goose jackets


canada goose jackets


canada goose jackets


canada goose jackets


canada goose jackets


canada goose outlet


canada goose


canada goose jackets


canada goose outlet store


canada goose outlet


canada goose outlet


canada goose outlet


canada goose outlet


canada goose jackets


canada goose outlet store


canada goose outlet


canada goose outlet


canada goose outlet


canada goose outlet


canada goose jackets


canada goose outlet online


canada goose outlet store


canada goose outlet


canada goose outlet


canada goose outlet


canada goose outlet


canada goose outlet


canada goose outlet


canada goose outlet


canada goose outlet


canada goose outlet


canada goose outlet


canada goose jackets


canada goose outlet


canada goose


canada goose outlet


canada goose outlet


canada goose jackets


canada goose outlet online


canada goose outlet


canada goose outlet


canada goose jackets


canada goose outlet store


canada goose outlet


canada goose outlet


canada goose outlet


canada goose jackets


canada goose outlet store


canada goose outlet


canada goose outlet


canada goose outlet


canada goose jackets


canada goose outlet stores


canada goose outlet


canada goose outlet


canada goose outlet


canada goose outlet


canada goose outlet


canada goose outlet


canada goose parka sale


canada goose parka


canada goose jackets


canada goose outlet


canada goose


canada goose sale


air jordan shoes


cheap jordan shoes


cheap jordans for sale


cheap jordans for sale


cheap jordans


cheap jordans


cheap jordans


air jordan shoes


cheap jordan shoes


cheap jordans


cheap mlb jerseys


mlb jerseys


cheap jerseys wholesale


cheap jerseys

yaoxuemei20171016

jerseys from china, nike huaraches, chrome hearts store, true religion outlet, philipp plein clothing, michael kors handbags, tory burch shoes, air max, air max 2015, brooklyn nets jersey, air max one, tommy hilfiger, atlanta hawks jersey, indoor soccer shoes, broncos nfl jersey, new balance canada, jordans, ralph lauren outlet online, bcbg max azria, burberry outlet store, adidas online, thomas sabo, longchamp, redskins nfl jersey, coach factory, bills nfl jersey, burberry handbags, oakley, jordan jerseys, oakley black friday, colts nfl jersey, barbour jackets, raptors jersey, kings jersey, knicks jersey, ralph lauren, salvatore ferragamo, mcm handbags, nike.com, jaguars nfl jersey, hollister, coach outlet online, michael kors bags, air max, rolex watches, jimmy choo shoes, vikings nfl jersey, nba jerseys, cheap nhl jerseys, true religion, polo ralph lauren, lunette oakley, coach store, burberry outlet, prada shoes, nike, air max 90, nike air max, phoenix suns, cheap jordans, kate spade outlet online, hermes birkin bag, nike air force, thomas sabo, under armour curry, celine bags, soccer shoes, omega watches, new balance, supra shoes, puma sneakers, ralph lauren, omega watches, nike mercurial, mont blanc, oakley sunglasses, coach factory online, red bottom shoes, giuseppe zanotti sneakers, ray ban wayfarer, nike, rams nfl jersey, nike tracksuits, the north face, air jordan retro, raiders nfl jersey, michael kors, adidas canada, fake rolex, north face, longchamp, armani shoes outlet, nike air yeezy, ray ban outlet online, prada, stone island outlet, beats audio, hermes, roshe runs, longchamp black friday, ralph lauren uk, basketball shoes, coach outlet online, cheap true religion, michael kors purses, cheap oakley sunglasses, michael kors outlet, hollister co, polo ralph lauren outlet online, marc jacobs, north face jackets, michael kors, nike free, oakley sunglasses cheap, mcm bags, mcm bags, michael kors outlet, max shoes, michael kors canada, burberry sale, michael kors, kids hoodies, bottega veneta, buccaneers nfl jersey, longchamp, air jordan shoes, hogan outlet, oakley vault, fred perry uk, jordans, rolex replica, coach store outlet, converse, cheap nhl jerseys, dsquared2 jeans, pandora schmuck, ray ban sonnenbrillen, dwyane wade jersey, jets nfl jersey, michael kors, charlotte hornets jerseys, christian louboutin shoes, chiefs nfl jersey, ray ban outlet, skechers mens shoes, vans, burberry handbags outlet, orlando magic jersey, instyler, ray ban, dolphins nfl jersey, ralph lauren factory store, nike air max 2014, five finger shoes, givenchy handbags, oakley, horloges, ed hardy, ray ban sunglasses outlet, skechers shoes outlet, dsquared2 outlet, ralph lauren online shop, vans, pandora jewelry, cheap nike shoes, san antonio spurs jersey, hugo boss clothes, coach outlet sale, pandora, burberry, ralph lauren, michael kors handbags, grizzlies jersey, juicy couture, roshe, coach factory outlet online, christian louboutin, jimmy choo outlet, michael kors, converse sneakers, ecco outlet online, omega, new balance outlet, hilfiger online shop, beats by dr dre, babyliss pro, polo ralph, burberry handbags, juicy couture outlet, jordan, texans nfl jersey, nba jersey, true religion jeans women, nike air max, oakley sunglasses outlet, ray-ban sunglasses, nfl jerseys, michael kors, denver nuggets jersey, oakley sunglasses, michael kors, fidget spinner, trail blazers jersey, burberry, michael kors, northface, giants nfl jersey, watches canada, converse shoes, packers nfl jersey, dansko outlet, cheap mlb jerseys, polo ralph lauren, cavaliers jerseys, designer handbags, eagles nfl jersey, titans nfl jersey, hogan women shoes, cheap oakley sunglasses, michael kors handbags, air jordans, softball bats, kate spade outlet online, birkenstock taschen outlet, tommy hilfiger, calvin klein underwear

Introduce me blogging indonesia want to visit on your website and read the contents of article useful for me,
if any time please visit our website 

obat kuat

cara memperbesar penis

bokep

Add new comment