資訊傳播理論分組導讀 - 新媒體與線上社群

課本是 The handbook of new media. (2006. London, UK:Sage.)
新媒體與社群的研究範例
以三種研究範圍作範例:
1.小規模電子媒體
2.以實體為基礎的線上社群
3.網路上的公開討論與辯論

1. 小規模電子媒體
近期有一些關於廣播與電視社群的研究,例如:
Mitchell(2001):研究女性社區電台如何作為一種賦權工具。以歐洲的實際研究為例,分析女性社群電台可以用來發展女性主義的公共領域。
Coleman(2001):研究愛爾蘭的 call-in 廣播節目,如何促成社會裡不同社群的意見交換,認為這樣的談話方式提供了其他場合裡不可能有的溝通機會。
Stein(2001):研究美國政治傳播裡的公共近用的電視節目,發現在激進的媒體計畫裡所使用的電視傳播,包含了傳統媒體所缺少的大量的民主言論。
Barlow(2001):研究澳洲三個社區電台的策略與作法。其他電台依循近用與參與的原則,這三個電台卻不同。且所有電台都必須強調專業化、普羅化和商業化。

2. 以實體為基礎的線上社群
基本上有兩種虛擬社群:
1.與地理因素相關
2.於特定地點無關
兩個研究範例:
1.Silver(2000):比較維吉尼亞州的Blacksburg Electronic Village (BEV) 和華盛頓州的 Seattle Community Network。這兩種數位社群網路有不同的開發、設計與使用狀況。
BEV:
由上而下的方式。
投資大量資源建設很棒的設施(蚊子館XD)
由一小撮人規劃與執行,社群與民眾的參與很少。
使用狀況以商業用途居多:下載折價券、查詢電影時刻、線上購物。
Seattle Community Network:
由下而上的方式。
在初期開發階段即引入社區/社群的參與(參與式設計),自行決定所有的政策與架構。
成為文化豐富、以民眾為基礎的平台,有許多線上資源、討論區可以讓使用者相互交流。
2.多倫多的 Netville
1990 年代中期,120 戶的實驗社區,擁有高速網路連線,可以提供視訊電話、影音娛樂、醫療服務、線上論壇等功能。
Hampton(2001) 研究在這些先進的傳播基礎建設的加持下,對於居民與其社區內外的同事、親戚、朋友之間的社交關係的影響。
他的研究是以多倫多學派對於社群的看法為基礎:社群不必然要與地理空間綁在一起,社會連結(social ties)才是最重要的。
Netvile 提供了很好的研究對象,Hampton 甚至還住在那裡兩年。他發現,這些電子網路對於強/弱的社會連結都提供了很好的輔助。(宅男的人際關係其實可以是很陽光的。)

3. 網路上的公開討論與辯論
公開討論與辯論,一直都是社群媒體的重點。網路亦然。
範例:Usenet 上一個關於墮胎的討論群組(Schneider1996,1997)。
以哈伯馬斯關於公領域(public sphere)的四個概念為研究基礎:
1.equality:平等,是否能平等地參與辯論
2.diversity:多元,關於特定議題能有不同意見
3.reciprocity:互惠/互動,辯論裡的參與者之間的互動
4.quality :品質,所發表的意見是否貼近主題
分析結果:
1.劣:理論上是開放的,但是參與者比例過低。
2.可
3.可
4.劣:常偏離主題。
研究結論:網路上的討論對於公開辯論的貢獻...有潛力,但參與程度低、品質欠佳。

研究新媒體與社群的方法和問題
研究方法
質化
量化
創新作法

研究問題
Janskowski(2001):社群結構、個體特質、媒體氛圍如何影響與數位社群網路的使用與參與?
Baym(1999):
1.是什麼力量形塑網路身份?
2.線上社群如何隨著時間發展?
3.線上參與如何與現實生活產生連結?
4.線上社群如何影響現實社群?

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